HOW TO REDUCE SPUTUM IN THROAT?
To reduce the increased production of sputum, we will have to know the condition causing the increased production of the saliva, and what it called, overall the increased production of sputum or hypersalivation is known as sialorrhea or ptyalism. To see the cause of hypersalivation, we need to dig deeper and know the physiology of the salivary glands how they work and how these glands are regulated by the control center of our body, which factors play their role in the regulation of salivary glands.
In general, Salivary glands divided into two groups, which are major salivary glands three in number and present in the paired formation, which are submandibular, parotid, and sublingual, and hundreds of minor salivary glands. When we eat our brain sends signals via nerves to these glands to produce saliva which is required in the digestion of food in the mouth at a basic level when there's enough production of saliva brain stops sending excitatory signals by a mechanism known as negative feedback by this way our body maintains a control production of saliva.
Any condition which disturbs the above process may cause unwanted effects, which may lead to hyposalivation or hypersalivation. Normal physiological conditions like pregnancy and excessive exercise our body tries to cope with the ongoing events by sending excitatory signals to the salivary glands in response to that stress and get back to normal when that stimulus went usually. In the case of pathological conditions like bacterial and viral infection and psychological problems, our body cannot maintain the equilibrium, and there would be increased unregulated production of saliva.
Sialorrhea can be divided further into anterior sialorrhea and posterior sialorrhea; both can occur independently or at the same time. Anterior sialorrhea causes salivary incontinence or automated spillage of saliva over the lower lip. Streaming of saliva from the tongue towards the pharynx occurs in posterior sialorrhea. The fundamental etiology is the unwanted and abnormal production of saliva or inability to hold saliva inside the mouth because of decreased neuromuscular control of the tongue, oral tissues, and disability in the drainage system, which are all essential to move saliva from the oral cavity to the oropharynx and drain it.
Sialorrhea, a pathological condition can occur alone and can coexist with other neurologic abnormalities like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cerebral palsy (CP), Parkinson's disease (PD), or as a side effect of some pharmacological drugs.
- Home Remedies:
Proper dental and oral hygiene can minimize this condition if maintained properly by regular brushing, which may help reduce inflammation of gums, which might be a cause of hypersalivation. Charcoal based tubes of toothpaste also shown good results in conditions of hyper-salivation; the use of chewing-gums increases the rate of salivary movement can be used as a home remedy. Coffee beans increase the absorption of saliva and keep mouth dry when used sublingually by effecting a sublingual group of salivary glands. Lemons, having low pH, shows antibacterial properties help to keep the mouth moist and regulate the production of saliva so it can be used as a home remedy.
- Medical Treatment:
Evaluation of the seriousness of sialorrhea and its effect on the personal satisfaction of the patient is to dig deeper and find out the cause and proper administration of that cause. Which will help in the management of the condition? Proper history taking must be done to rule out any underlying psychological abnormalities and other causes before initiation of the treatment. Certain medicines can help to decrease the increased sputum production.
- Benztropine is a commonly used drug in sialorrhea when associated with a psychological disorder like "parkinsonism" and shows good results but can produce serious adverse effects like headache, dizziness, depression and anxiety, confusions, trouble in swallowing or dysphagia, dry and hot skin, arrhythmias, drowsiness, and convulsions.
- Scopolamine patches are also used in sialorrhea. These are dermal patched placed behind ears and interfere with the signaling pathway by blocking nerve, which controls the activity of the salivary glands. Its adverse effects include Pruritus at the site of patches, urine retention, irritability, blurred vision, and drug-induced glaucoma.
- Botulinum toxin A (Botox) also use to treat hypersalivation. Its adverse effects are severe pain at the injection site and cause sudden severe dryness.
- Biperiden was also used to manage hypersalivation, but studies show its massive adverse effects, especially on cognition, which limits its use.
Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a strong antioxidant act directly on free radicals and decreases them, particularly oxygen free radicals, which can cause the sialorrhea induced by pharmacological drugs like clozapine. It also has some adverse effects, which may be an abdominal disturbance, ocular irritations, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, dermal rash.
- Surgical Treatment:
In extreme cases, this condition can be treated with surgical procedures on the major salivary glands by excising the glands or ligation their nerve supply.